OBESITY & BEING OVERWEIGHT CAUSE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
OBESITY & BEING OVERWEIGHT
CAUSE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
What is the difference?
What’s the difference between obesity and being overweight? In principal, being obese can mean people are carrying too much body fat, however, being overweight can, in certain circumstances, be classed as people who weigh too much. All of this will be explained in greater detail in this section, plus how being overweight or obese can cause disease.
This section will explain some of the reasons why people are overweight or obese. also explain different ways how obesity and being overweight are assessed, defined and measured. Together with a list of many conditions that are caused by being overweight or obese, these include:
- Sleep Apnoea (This subject is also covered in section 35)
- Type 2 Diabetes (This subject is also covered in section 9)
- Heart Disease (This subject is also covered in section 20)
- Stroke (This subject is also covered in section 25)
- Heart Attack
- Metabolic Arthritis (Gout)
- Kidney Disease
- Certain types of Cancer, such as Prostate, Rectal, Colon
- Degenerative arthritis of the hips, back, knees
The conditions listed maybe thought of as a “Chicken and Egg” situation, which comes first! High blood pressure maybe the cause of some of these conditions, or these conditions may be the cause of high blood pressure.
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF OBESITY?
For many years obesity has been defined in different terms, such as an increase in an ideal weight by at least 20%. Another definition is having too much body fat.
HOW IS WEIGHT/OBESITY DEFINED/MEASURED?
There are many options to choose from when it comes to how obesity is measured and defined:
- BMI (Body Mass Index)
- Waist to Hip Ratio
- Waist Circumference
- Skinfold Testing (Callipers)
- Bathroom Scales the measure Body Fat
- Hydrostatic Underwater Weighing
- Cat Scan, MRI Scan. Both considered very accurate
- There are many more, an internet search will show more
- More information on BMI and Waist to Hip Ratio detailed below
Let’s look at BMI first, traditionally weight/obesity has been measured by BMI (Body Mass Index). However, dietitians’ consultants and researchers can’t agree which is the best method to measure/define people who are overweight, obese or very obese.
The argument is that individuals differ, for example, clinical studies have shown that the BMI of people with a lot of muscle could be misleading, likewise, an elderly person may have lost muscle but carry body fat, again, the BMI could be misleading. However, lets continue with BMI.
"BMI" - devised by Lambert Quetelet
And for those interested in origins of words, BMI was a number devised by Lambert Quetelet in the 1830’s, he was a mathematician, astronomer and statistician from Belgium. His formula was dividing weight in kilograms (kg), by height in meters squared. For example, a person who weighs 16 Stone/101 kilograms, with a height 5’ 10”/1.78 Metres, the formula is:
Taking a height of 1.78 Metres Squared 1.78 X 1.78 = 3.1684.
Taking a weight of 101 Kilograms divided by 3.1684 = a BMI of 32.
A person with a BMI of 32 would be classed as obese.
A person 5’ 10”/1.78M weighing 11 Stone/70kg would have a BMI of 22 and would be classed as healthy.
The link below takes you to a website that changes metric, imperial and American measurements:www.metric-conversions.org
Body Mass Index
NEXT, LETS LOOK AT WAIST TO HIP RATIO
Again, this tells you if your weight is considered normal, overweight or obese. To find your waist to hip ratio, simply put a tape measure around your waist, then put the tape measure around your hips. To find the ratio, divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement. The hip to waist ratio differs for men and women. For example:
- A woman with a waist of 31” and a hip measurement of 41” would give a Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) of 0.76. This would be considered low risk for heart diseases and other conditions.
- A woman with a waist of 31” and hips 37” your WHR would be 0.82. This would be considered medium risk for heart diseases and other conditions.
- A woman with a waist was 31” and hips 35” your WHR would be 0.89 This would be considered high risk for heart diseases and other conditions.
- The World Health Organization have reported that a Waist to Hip Ratio for a woman of 0.80 or lower, is a low health risk, a medium risk, would be between 0.81 and 0.85. A high risk would be a figure of 0.86 or higher.
- The World Health Organization have reported that a Waist to Hip Ratio for a man of 0.95 or lower is a low health risk. A medium risk would be between 0.96 and 1.00. A high risk would be a figure of 1.01 or higher.
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY or being overweight?
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY or being overweight? This is a minefield! The first thing people say is “You Eat Too Much”. Yes, that may be a cause of obesity or being overweight, however, there are many other reasons which I’ve listed below.
- JUNK FOOD isn’t made of rubbish, however the food used has very little nutrients your body needs to maintain a healthy weight, in fact it can be the cause of many conditions listed at the beginning of this section. Junk food is processed food containing excess fat, processed sugar carbohydrates and additives.
Section 13 explains how sugar could be Poison & Toxic . In simple terms, sugar has zero benefit to the health of your body.
- INSULIN RESISTANCE is a subject some people don’t connect with obesity and being overweight. Insulin is a hormone that regulates your body’s energy storage. Insulin resistance is a term used when billions of your body cells, fail to respond to the insulin hormone. The cause of insulin resistance can be linked to, no exercise, excessive body fat, excessive body weight, lack of sleep, smoking, not exercising.
- The Medical Profession often refer to high blood pressure as the “Silent Killer”, there are around 300 million people worldwide who are totally unaware they have high blood pressure, mainly due to the fact there are no real symptoms. Unfortunately, many people find out they have been suffering with high blood pressure after they’ve had a heart attack, stroke or other conditions. (More about high blood pressure and the silent killer in section 13).
When insulin resistance starts to develop, your body calls out to the Pancreas to make more insulin, as time goes by, months turn into years the body calls out for more and more insulin from your pancreas, eventually the pancreas breaks down and can’t produce enough insulin. Over the period of the past years, in a way similar to high blood pressure, insulin resistance has slowly been silently developing. However, during this period of time you may not have experienced any symptoms that your blood sugar may have started to rise, this could be the beginning of Pre-Diabetes or even Type 2 Diabetes. (Read more about diabetes in section 9). This rise in blood sugar may have also triggered the start of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). This is a side effect of insulin resistance, possibly causing liver and heart disease.